Peer-Reviewed Journal Articles

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    Dietary Pentosanase Supplementation of Diets Containing Different Qualities of Wheat on Growth Performance and Metabolizable Energy of Turkey Poults
    (2004) Santos, Anael A. Jr; Ferket, P. R.; Grimes, J. L.; Edens, F. W.
    Wheat varies in apparent metabolizable energy N-corrected (AMEn) due to the presence of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), which can be improved by dietary enzyme supplementation. Poults from 0-17 d-age were fed diets containing various wheat sources (WS) with or without Natugrain Blend® (NB) (BASF, Germany). Five replicate cages of 10 poults were assigned to each eight-soybean-meal/wheat treatment diets and a control soybean-meal/corn diet. The treatments were a factorial arrangement of 4 WS (A, B, C, D) and 2 enzyme levels (0 and 200 mg NB/kg). The WS differed by the degree of frost damage during seed development. Regardless of the source of wheat, NB increased 17 d BW (351 vs 381 g, P < 0.001), decreased 1-17 d FCR (1.55 vs 1.49, P < 0.05), increased AMEn (2,204 vs 2,455 kcal/kg, P < 0.001), and increased apparent nitrogen retention (ANR) (35.0 vs 41.4 %, P < 0.05). No effects of WS were seen on growth performance, but WS A and B had higher (P < 0.05) AMEn than sources C and D (2,396 and 2,460 vs 2,246 and 2,216 kcal/kg, respectively). Gut viscosity was higher (P < 0.05) in poults fed wheat-based diets than the control diet. Enzyme supplementation to the wheat-based diets decreased viscosity (5.57 vs 3.98 cP, P < 0.05) to a level similar to the corn-based control diet, and it resulted in equivalent growth performance. Viscosities were negatively correlated with AMEn. The results demonstrated a positive effect of enzyme supplementation on nutrient utilization and performance of turkeys.
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    Dietary Supplementation of Endoxylanases and Phospholipase for Turkeys Fed Wheat-based Rations
    (2004) Santos, Anael A. Jr; Ferket, P. R.; Grimes, J. L.; Edens, F. W.
    The adverse effects of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) on turkeys fed wheat-based diets may be alleviated by dietary supplementation of endoxylanase (to reduce the adverse effects of digesta viscosity) or phospholipase (to improve the digestibility of fat). BUTA toms were fed wheat-based diets containing one of 5 enzyme treatments: unsupplemented control, Natugrain Blend® (> 5,500 EXU/kg diet; NB), Lyxasan®-50 (> 2,250 EXU/kg diet; LX50), Lyxasan®-100 (> 5,500 EXU/kg diet; LX100), and Phospholipase (> 500 PLU/kg diet; PL) (BASF, Germany). Each treatment group was assigned to 8 pens containing 12 birds to evaluate growth performance (1-128 d), and 2 pens of 12 birds (excluding LX50) for the apparent metabolizable energy N-corrected (AMEn) and ileum viscosity determination (56-128 d). All enzyme treatments improved growth performance. In comparison to the control, dietary enzyme increased (P < 0.05) BW and decreased 1-128 d feed/gain (2.45 vs 2.37, P < 0.005). PL was most effective in reducing feed/gain during the starting phase and LX100 during the finishing phase, while NB had intermediate benefits throughout the experiment. PL increased AMEn from 9 to 12 wk, while NB and LX-100 resulted in the highest AMEn during the later finishing period. Viscosity was significantly higher for PL than the other treatments (13.5 vs 7.07 cP, P < 0.001). Growth performance and energy utilization of turkeys fed wheat-based diets can be significantly enhanced by phospholipase supplementation of starter feeds and endoxylanase supplementation of growing and finishing feeds. However, enzyme blends may provide a positive response regardless of turkey age.
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    Influence of Grain Particle Size and Insoluble Fiber Content on Salmonella Colonization and Shedding of Turkeys Fed Corn-Soybean Meal Diets
    (2006) Santos, F. B. O.; Santos, Anael A. Jr; Ferket, P. R.; Sheldon, B. W.
    This study aimed to determine the impact of feeding partially ground corn or insoluble fiber on intestinal development, Salmonella cecal colonization and fecal shedding of turkeys from 0-28d. Turkeys reared in cage-batteries were assigned to 1 of 3 diets: ground corn-SBM (GC, TRT 1), coarse ground corn-SBM (CC, TRT 2), and 4% wood shavings + ground corn-SBM (SC, TRT 3). A 3-strain cocktail of nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella enterica serotypes Hadar, Javaina, and Typhimurium was orally-gavaged into each poult at placement. Cecal and fecal Salmonella populations, growth performance and intestinal weights and lengths were measured. The diets had no impact on Salmonella cecal or fecal populations. At 28d, Salmonella cecal populations decreased approximately 3-logs (range: 2.4-3.3 log reduction) across all treatments in comparison to 7d (P< 0.0001). At 28d body weight, body gain and feed conversion ratio were not impacted by the diets. However, at 14d poults consuming the SC diet had lower feed consumption than those fed the GC and CC diets (231 vs. 243 and 252 g, P=0.001, respectively). The CC diet resulted in heavier relative gizzard weights at 28d in comparison to the GC and SC diets (30 vs. 28 and 22 g/kg, respectively, P< 0.0001). Conversely, the SC treatment reduced the mass of the small intestine relative to body weight, especially the jejunum. Dietary inclusion of coarsely ground corn and wood shavings had no adverse effect on growth performance yet improved gizzard and intestinal development, which could have positive effects on intestinal health.
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    Determination of Ileum Microbial Diversity of Broilers Fed Triticale- or Corn-based Diets and Colonized by Salmonella
    (2007) Santos, F. B. O.; Sheldon, B. W.; Santos, Anael A. Jr; Ferket, P. R.; Lee, M. D.; Smith, D.
    Diversity of the bacterial communities in the ileum of broilers was characterized using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis separation of polymerase chain reaction amplicons of the V2–V3 variable regions of the 16S rDNA is a common method to profile community diversity and has been used to assess the effects of diet and antibiotics on the ileal bacterial community of chickens. Broilers raised either on litter floor or in cage batteries were fed either a finely ground corn- (control), a finely ground triticale-, or a whole triticale-based diet from 0 to 42 d. Microbial DNA was extracted from the ileum content of 42-d-old broilers, and the 16S rDNA gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and the amplicons separated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Diversity indexes including richness, evenness, diversity, and pairwise similarity coefficients were calculated. Diversity indexes were related to the dietary treatments, housing designs, and to changes in Salmonella colonization of broiler ceca as characterized by the most probable number method. Higher microbial diversity indexes were observed among birds fed whole triticale-based diets and reared on litter floors. In contrast, finely ground grain treatments had lower diversity and higher Salmonella prevalence than the whole triticale treatment. The data indicated that combination of high dietary fiber content and increased coarseness of the diet by feeding whole triticale stimulated microbial community diversity and discouraged Salmonella colonization, perhaps through a competitive exclusion-type mechanism.
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    Influence of Housing System, Grain Type and Particle Size on Salmonella Colonization and Shedding of Broilers Fed Triticale or Corn-Soybean Meal Diets
    (2008) Santos, F. B. O.; Sheldon, B. W.; Santos, Anael A. Jr; Ferket, P. R.
    Salmonella colonization in poultry may be influenced by grain type and particle size. Broilers reared either in nonlitter cage-based housing or in a conventionally floored litter house from 0 to 42 d were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments: 1) ground corn-soybean meal (C, 560 μm), 2) coarsely ground corn-soybean meal (CC, >1,700 μm), 3) ground triticale-soybean meal (T, 560 μm), or 4) whole triticale-soybean meal (WT). A 4-strain cocktail of Salmonella enterica was orally gavaged into each chick at placement. Growth performance, cecal and fecal Salmonella populations, gizzard and proventriculus pH, intestinal size, jejunum histomorphometry, and carcass yields were measured. Broilers responded differently to the dietary treatments according to the housing system used. At 42 d, birds reared on litter and fed ground grain had greater BW than those fed coarse grain (2.87 vs. 2.71 kg), whereas cage-reared broilers fed ground triticale were heavier than those fed corn (2.75 vs. 2.64 kg). Broilers raised on litter had a better feed conversion ratio than those raised in cages (1.71 vs. 1.81 g/g). Independent of the housing system, relative eviscerated carcass weights of birds fed T and C were heavier than those of CC- and WT-fed broilers (762 vs. 752 g/kg). Generally, the jejunum villus area and mucosal depth were larger, whereas the small intestine was lighter and shorter in broilers raised on litter. Relative gizzard weights of broilers raised on litter and fed the coarser diets were heavier than those of broilers reared in cages and fed finely ground diets. Feeding whole or coarsely ground grains decreased cecal Salmonella populations in 42-d-old broilers (3.8, 3.9, 4.4, and 4.4 log most probable number/g for CC, WT, C, and T, respectively). Additionally, 42-d-old broilers reared on litter had lower cecal Salmonella populations than those in cages (3.8 vs. 4.4 log most probable number/g). In conclusion, as a feed ingredient, triticale is a good alternative to corn, resulting in improved BW and reduced Salmonella colonization. Broilers raised on litter may have achieved lower cecal Salmonella populations than caged birds because access to litter may have modulated the intestinal microflora by increasing competitive exclusion microorganisms, which discouraged Salmonella colonization.